I haven’t yet watched even half of Kurosawa’s films, so this list is probably far from exhaustive. I’ll either update this post or write another if I find many more.
Content warning for antifeminism/ableism.
This film features one disabled woman and (arguably) one disabled girl, as well as swarms of physicians.
The woman is referred to as “the Mantis” by a minor character, one of the doctors, and, indeed...
The girl is a Dostoevsky borrowing (says the internet -- I haven’t read Humiliated and Insulted).
The arrogant young doctor in Redbeard has studied Dutch medicine.
Re: westernization/representations of medicine: you could compare Redbeard and Drunken Angel (1948).
The Bad Sleep Well (1960)
The young wife’s physical disability is very central to this film.
Watching Toshiro Mifune's breadth is a source of delight.